A Memorial for Empress Menen Asfaw’s Birthday
Attosh, Empress Menen Your Excellency
I would like to offer this book for your 67th birth day ceremony. This book may not contain all your biography, but it is a small part of it. As I offer this book to Your Excellency, I pray You will acknowledge it. For it is presented to Your Majesty with the most humility. Even though, Your kindness and charity is well known all over the world, I would like to transmit my knowledge of your good deeds to the coming generation. I was fortunate to observe what was going on in your palace when I was being educated in the compound of St. Mark Church beginning in 1916. During that time I observed, in close proximity, Your kindness, charity and good deeds. This obliged me to write this book in order to help the historians by giving them a credible source of information.
I have no intention of assuming myself a trained historical writer. But my interest is to give concrete facts for the next generation in written form. As His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie’s regime helps writers to preserve historical facts, I, your servant would like to use this opportunity to make this book a memorial offering to the generations to come. This small book contains your good deeds and I am inspired after having observed your charity and kindness.
I am very grateful to the Almighty God for making it possible to accomplish this book. I also wish long life for the famous His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie I King of Kings of Ethiopia, the princes, the princesses and the entire Royal family. This is not only my wish but also the deepest and keenest interest of all Ethiopians
When we refer to ancient historical documents from the time of Adam we can observe that it is not only men who have struggled for the better. Women have also contributed a lot, being on the side of men. Women shared problems and scarified themselves; which makes them sacred and give them special place in the history of mankind.
Woman participated in the battle field with men and were as victorious as men. Some women are remembered famously because of their adventures. During times of peace, women show their hospitality in the home. History makes mention of the fact that women would invite members of the army into their homes and fostered good social relations.
More than in any country, women in Ethiopia have fought in the battle field just as courageously as men. On the war front women have fought along side their husbands. Some women were commanders of the army which made them famous with their name being hailed around the world. Among such famous women Queen Taitu received an historical place. Empress Taitu fought on the Adwa battle field as a soldier and as a commander of the army 62 years ago.
In 1924 a memorial photograph of His Majesty King of Kings Haile Sellassie I, Empress Menen, Princess Tanagne Work Haile Sellassie I, Prince Merid Azmach AsfawWasenn, Princess Wolete Israel Syeoum, Princess Zenebework Haile Sellassie, Princess Tsehaye Haile Sellassie, Prince Mekonnen the ‘Duke’ of Harar was taken.
Next to Queen Taitu, our most fortunate Queen Empress Menen is, naturally, the one who is the most beautiful. Empress Menen is blessed and rich Queen Menen is kind, human, and God fearing. She is always with the people by sharing in their problems and finding solutions. Queen Menen stretches her hand unto the poor; such that all Ethiopians like her very much.
In 1928 when His Majesty King of Kings went to the battle field, Empress Menen administered the people in the capital city. When the enemy’s airplanes came to bomb, Queen Menen encouraged the people and worked seriously.
In the history of Ethiopia no one, except the King of Kings Haile Sellassie and Empress Menen, has had the opportunity to have as many children and grandchildren; which helps to strengthen the dynasty. Perhaps one or two children may belong to the former kings , but they cannot taste how sweet it is to witness their grandchildren’s effort and success.
His Majesty King of Kings Haile Sellassie and Empress Menen, because God blessed them during 47 years of marriage, have many children and grandchildren. The King and the Queen were tied with Holy communion. Their children and grandchildren are engaged in different jobs rendering service to their country. This is special and enduring history for us which can not be found anywhere else. Empress Menen, since she came to this world in 1883, for 67 years age accomplished great human deeds and charity. This kindness categorized her as a sacred woman. Elders, Monks, and priests in the church are witnesses of such sacred deeds. I would like to describe her eternal work by writing her biography in the following chapters.
Her Majesty Empress Menen
Princess Mrs (Woizero) now Empress Menen was born on March 25, 1883 in Wollo province, in the Ambassel Region in the Egua area from her father Jantirar Asfaw and her Mother Woizero Sehin Michael. She was baptized in Saint Delba George Church. Her Christian name was Wolete Giorgis. Her name Menen is given to the most beautiful respected ladies.
Princess Woizero now Empress Menen was raised well by her parents. She also had an instructor at home like the former Lords’ and Dukes’ sons and daughters. Empress Menen knows reading and writing very well in her native language Amharic. Her Amharic teachers were Maduna and Father Workineh. Beyond academic education she learned home economics and spinning; which is an Ethiopian tradition. Since she obtained the best knowledge in household management, people called her the head of women. Indeed, Empress Menen is charming lady and no one can compete with her.
In 1892 she legally married and bore two (2) daughters and two (2) sons. These are Woizero Belaynesh, Jantiror Asfaw, Jantirar Gebre Egziabher and Woizero Desta. On November 5 1903, she began her journey from Dessie and reached Addis Ababa on Nov. 25, 1903. In the same year in June the then Dejazmach Teferi, now His Majesty Emperor Haile Sellassie I King of Kings of Ethiopia, married her. Lij Eyasu was responsible for making them a couple. The Wedding Ceremony was accomplished in the following condition.
His Majesty King of Ethiopia Haile Sellassie was the Governor of Harar. The bride princess Woizero Menen was in Addis Ababa. The then Dejazmach Teferi Majesty King of Kings of Ethiopia, Haile Sellassie I sent for his loyal servants, the then Gijazmach, now prince Ras Emiru Haile Sellasse, and Lij Beshah Wured, who were in Addis Ababa. Kegnazmach Gobaw led the other invited fellows and they travelled from Addis Ababa riding horses and mules and reached Harar on July 23, 1903.
When they arrived there, Dejazmach Teferi was waiting for them at the place called Hammaressa near Harar. Dejazmach Teferi was accompanied by his loyal servants and lords to receive her with respect. In addition to this, the Harar army was waiting around the Awash area to receive the Princess. The people of Harar wished for the couple to be like the sacred marriage of Abraham and Sarah.
On the 22nd of January, 1905 the first daughter princess was born. This princess was baptized at Kombolcha Mariam and her Christian name is Fikirte Mariam. She was named after her grandfather’s mother’s name Tenagne Work and called Tenagne Work Haile Sellassie. Princess Tanagne Work has many children and also has became a grandmother.
On July 8, 1908 the second son, the “Duke” was born. This Duke was named Asfa Wosen by his father His Majesty Haile Sellassie. He was baptized at Adere Tiko Trinity Church and his Christian name Amha Sellassie was given. The then Princess Menen delivered Prince Asfa Wosen in Harar city.
By this time Dejazmach Teferi was in Addis Ababa. She held the small baby close and traveled to Addis Ababa. She started her journey and reached Qersa. The next day Princess Menen traveled from Qersa to Dire Dawa. From Dire Dawa they traveled by train to Awash and they reached Akaki on September 1st. Princess Menen reached Addis Ababa by using the Faltu train on September 2nd. They used the Faltu train because the modern train had recently been introduced in the country. Prince Asfa Wosen has many children and grandchildren.
On July 18, 1909 the third princess was born. The princess’ Christian name was given as Hirute Sellassie. And her birth name is Princess Zenebework. The princess died in March 15 1925 having no children. On September 17, 1909 Prince Eyashu was impeached by vote and Dejazmach Teferi promoted to the rank of Ras and became crown prince of Ethiopia. He received full authority to govern Ethiopia on behalf of the people and Empress Menen received the rank of Princess.
On October 17, 1909 Lij Eyasu was over thrown from his authority of ruling the country despite the fact that their grandfather King Mikael created a civil war on behalf of his son Lij Eyasu Michael. Princess Menen kept her promise to her husband Crown Prince Ras Teferi Mekonnen and showed her loyalty by helping him up to the end.
On February 4, 1909 Empress Zewditu took over her father’s position. Her father was Emperor Menelik II. During that time the Crown Prince Ras Teferi Mekonnen got a gold crown and Princess Woizero Menen also got the rank of princess and received a gold crown.
On October 2, 1912 a fourth princess was born. The Christian name of this princess was Wolete Birhan and her birth name is Princess Tsehay. Princess Tsehay was kind and willing to help the poor. She died in August 12, 1934 without having any children.
There was an incomplete church being built by Empress Taitu in 1910; which is found in east Addis Ababa around Entoto Tigat. EmpressTaitu told Empress Menen to complete the building. Keeping her promise, Empress Menen invested a lot of money and constructed the church. Empress Taitu gave this project to Empress Menen because she knew spiritually that princess Woizero Menen would be the Empress in the future.
On March 16 1915, the “Kidane Mihret” church started its ceremony. The church became a monastery and was called Hamere Noh. Empress Menen gave her estate to the monastery and therefore helped those who give service to the church. This monastery is still a shelter for many Christians. There is holy water near the church in which people immerse themselves and they also drink it. People from every corner of Ethiopia give thanks to Empress Menen for this Holy water.
In March, 1915 Empress Menen traveled to Jerusalem to visit the place where Jesus Christ was born. Jesus Christ preached Christianity and sacrificed himself for the sake of our sin. Empress Menen went to Jerusalem by train and ship via Djibouti. After she visited every part of Jerusalem, she went to Egypt to visit holy places. She gave a lot of money to monasteries and came back to Ethiopia.
On October 5, 1916 Empress Menen delivered the fifth prince. The prince took the name of his grandfather Mekonnen while his Christian name was Araya Yohannes.
Orice Mekonnen the Duke of Harar, passed away in May 4, 1919 after he had five sons.
On May 30, 1916 His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie was visiting Europe in order to introduce to many countries.
On May 20, 1908 Majesty Haile Sellassie was saved from the accident in the Harmay sea and Empress Menen was praying; wishing for the Crown Prince to come back home safely. Empress Menen gave her daughter Princess Tenangne Work Haile Sellassie to be married with His Excellency Ras Desta Damtew on Nov 7 1917.
On May 28 1919 Empress Menen donated a big amount of money to construct schools for the poor children and freed slaves.
On Oct. 3 1920 her mother “Woizero Sihin passed away in Addis Ababa at the age of 56 years. The funeral ceremony was at Debre Selam Medhane Alem Church.
In June, 1920, Empress Menen visited Teferi Mekonnen School and donated money after observing different kinds of handicraft products.
On Sept. 27 1921 His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie was promoted as Ethiopia’s King of Kings Crown Prince with full authority and they celebrated with a crowning ceremony. On this occasion Empress Menen showed her hostess ability by inviting many guests for an eight (8) day feasting. The feast began an historical chapter which cannot be forgotten.
On Nov. 18 1921 Empress Menen went to Djibouti due to health problems and came back on December 9th. On Feb. 5, 1921 she took King Mikael’s dead body from Holeta Genet Kidane Mihret Church to St. Michale Church at Tenta. She accompanied the body up to Desie and came back to Addis Ababa. On March 24, 1922 Her Majesty Empress Zewditu passed away. His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie I took over the crown of his grandfather King Menelik II. As a result of this, Empress Menen also had the same fortune of being promoted with her husband.
On September 24, 1923 Empress Menen founded a new school for girls near Genete Loul Palace. This school teaches women to be equal participants with men in the sphere of knowledge and technology. In this school a great number of ladies receive a chance to learn. Many students obtained scholarship to foreign countries; indeed this school fulfilled its objective.
On Oct. 23, 1923 (November 2nd 1930) His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie I King of Kings of Ethiopia was crowned Emperor of Ethiopia at Menagesha St George Church. He allowed Princess Menen to be Empress and crowned on the same day. The invited guests from different countries received gifts of silver medals which had the picture of King of Kings of Ethiopia Haile Sellassie I and Empress Menen. Dear invited foreign guests appreciated the beauty of Empress Menen.
On February 20, 1923 Empress Menen delivered the sixth prince. The prince took the Christian name of his grandfather Prince Sahile Aba Dina. He was baptized at Mekane Sellassie Church in Addis Ababa. On February 3, 1924 Empress Menen went to Djibouti for a visit and came back on February 10th to Addis Ababa.
On April 30, 1924 Ethiopia’s King of government Crown Prince Mered Azmach Asfawosen legally married Princess Wolete Israel.
On November 11, 1925 Empress Menen constructed St. Hana Church at Furi on her estate. She gave a lot of acres of land to priests and deacons of the church. Empress Menen also gave urban land for the residents.
On September 6, 1926 Empress Menen went to sacred land Jerusalem for the second time. After she visited different churches and monasteries, she constructed, with her own funds, the St. Trinity Church for the Ethiopians in Jerusalem. She donated a lot of money to the monastery and clergymen and inaugurated the church.
On October 2, 1926 she completed her visit of Jerusalem and came back to Addis Ababa. On May 19, 1926 Empress Menen went to Harar to visit and inaugurate Prince Mekonnen the Duke of Harar as governor of Harar.
In 1928 Fascist Italy was preparing to invade Ethiopia. Empress Menen gathered Ethiopian ladies by preparing logistic support, first aid materials and sent them to the battle field. She did her best up to the end.
On September 13, 1928, Empress Menen disclosed the aggression to the World Women Association and appealed to all world nation states:
“I am pleased to present my speech to all world women. When Italy conquered our people and country the World Women Association supported us to settle peace and freedom. We are very happy to express our deep feeling for the association. While I am speaking now, in order to be understood by all countries my daughter, Princess Tsehai, will translate my speech into English.
Princess Tsehai made the following speech on behalf of Empress Menen:
“Recently, Italy conquered us unjustly and the world’s women should hear the voice of the Ethiopian people. Even though women of the world are living in different countries with different climates, all women are interrelated with the same will and objectives. War is a distress and trouble to mankind. For all women of different countries, different races, and religions, the acts of violence and war have victimized their husbands, brothers and children. War is a destruction of the family and creates homelessness. So women are against war.
We know that even Italian mothers and barren women may worry about the war, since war is good for nothing. Therefore, all women should prevent war before it brings trouble and distress. They should collaborate their voices and request the avoidance of war before there is bloodshed on both sides.
Ethiopia does not think of violence as a means to resolve conflict and wishes to maintain peace. Ethiopia tried to settle the conflict peacefully in the early months. In every aspect Ethiopia has done her best. So we have a clear conscience. Ethiopian people welcomed all foreigners; the guests who came to work peacefully and innocently. The Ethiopian people’s good hospitality towards foreigners has been wellnarrated in the history of the world. However, one state which is the neighbor to Ethiopia, is trying to control and govern. Ethiopia is always on the line of peace, while the rival state is looking only after its own interest.
The enemy deployed its army and set up bases around our country to kill our women's husbands, children, and brothers. Our people live and working peacefully, by being God-fearing, but the enemy is trying to devastate the wealth of the country and destroy our family in the name of modernization.
We pray to God not to face this kind of distress and destruction if the so-called modernization brings such big trouble. Hence, the association which is established for the purpose of peace by the world’s women may exert influence to bring peace and stability. We don't hesitate to believe that the World Women Association may contribute a great deal to settling this conflict peacefully. We pray to God that the Association accomplishes its mission. We hope the activities of the Association may bring fruitful results in the preservation of peace and security in our country.
Nonetheless, if the war is started, we women should treat wounded soldiers and minimize the damage from the war. Women who are living all over the world, who stand for peace, may help us during the time of war. We know that these women assist the sacrificed patriot's family. All women of the world should struggle to bring about peace and justice. Government officials must be guided along the lines of God and we pray for this as well as your collaboration with us in this effort.”
On Nov. 18 1928 His Imperial Majesty King of Kings Haile Sellassie I went to the north battle field Empress Menen stayed in Addis Ababa and prepared logistics and sent to the battle field. When the enemy's planes bombed civilians she advised the people to be careful. During the bombing she traveled by car in the city to advise and embolden the people with courage. In addition to this she kept praying thereby waging spiritual warfare against the enemy.
On April 28, 1928 the Maichew battlefield was bombed and devastated by Italian army, His Majesty King of Kings came back to the capital city to give the guiding instruction for the rest of the people. Then he went abroad in order to appeal to the League of Nations. Empress Menen also went to Europe with him to assist him by giving advice and constructive ideas.
From 1928 -1933 (1936 - 1941) they stayed in England in exile. During those trouble years they were praying day and night. They felt deep sorrow for the people because the enemy conquered Ethiopia. Empress Menen stayed with the King of Kings Majesty Haile Sellassie as an advisor. In 1933 (1941) she saw the rise of Ethiopia.
On February 12, 1929 the Fascist Italian army led by Graziani killed children, old women and men. When Empress Menen heard this news she was felt deep sorrow for the massacred people. She sobbed and pray to God for this inhuman act.
On April 27, 1933 (May 5th 1941) When His Imperial Majesty King of Kings Haile Sellassie I reached the capital city with victory Empress Menen sent Him the following telegram message:“I have received a Telegram your Majesty is victorious and has entered in the capital. Your family extends congratulations with great pleasure. I extend my greetings to Prince Crown Mekonnen”
After the invader army evacuated Addis Ababa on August 23, 1933, Empress Menen returned back home by extraordinary airplane with her beloved daughter Princess Tsehay. This time His Majesty King of Kings received them at the airport. The residents of Addis Ababa also received them with deep happiness.
In 1934 Empress Menen went to Wollo province and gave a speech through princess Tsehay, offering the following advice:
“My country's ladies and gentlemen, first of all I would like to thank the Almighty Lord for our flag having been returned to it’s rightful place. Our patriots were victorious after staying in the bush for 5 years. Secondly, any human being would feel the great pleasure, I feel at this moment, when he or she is rejoined with his/her birth place. By the grace of God, I was eager to see my native home, Wollo. I am very happy as it has been 31 years since I last visited this region. Finally, I am very grateful for the people who received me with great pleasure.
All of you know that this naturally gifted country which is green and different from any other African country has never been colonized and has been ruled only by its own kings. After many attempts at colonization, Italy perpetrated propaganda warfare. Through this campaign, Italy tried to dismiss our unity and divide our people.
Is there anybody who did not loose a relative during the war? Some of our citizens were killed by hoes, spades and machine guns.
God made it possible that Ethiopia was quickly victorious over its enemy. We, the citizen’s children feel proud when we see our country freed from any aggression and we are very thankful to Almighty God. Ethiopian people have had good lessons from past experience which enables us to cooperate; much like one mother's children who love each other. This made every Ethiopian struggle for the country's independence and freedom. You have seen that a people without freedom are victims; as was seen during the 5 years aggression. Indeed our people did not hate native rulers as long as they kept the language, custom and tradition of the people. But Italians tried to rule in a subtle way. During the aggression, even though the enemy killed our people, patriots went to the bush and some went abroad in exile. This situation surprised the world.
My native ladies and gentlemen of Wollo, our country has been free for 3000 years. However through the help of England and the fierce struggle of its children, we freed our country, the flag and King of our common motherland Ethiopia. We have to be one and united The crown prince is selected by and came up from you, our beloved son, prince Meried Azmach Asfa Wosen is now with you. Even though I was separated from Wollo 31 years (physically, as it is impossible to say that I was living alienated from you), I was with you spiritually.
Our beloved son is your governor. I believe you will be very happy when I tell you this information. You will treat him loyally and kindly and he will share your problems and help you. He will govern you through good justice. Please, give him good advice and assist him whenever he needs it.
May Good keep our country fertile. May God give long life to our flag.”
Here she completed her speech. At this time ladies & gentlemen of Wollo event children touched their heart with great happiness by her speech.
In 1934 Empress Menen reconstructed Empress Menen Girls' School and made it possible to restart the girls’ academics.
On November 15, 1934 Empress Menen went to Harar by train and stayed up to December 5th to visit different parts of Harar. Then after her visit she came back to Addis Ababa, capital city of Ethiopia.
On April 18, 1934 her daughter princess Teshay Hailu Sellassie was given in legal marriage to Colonel Abiy Abebe who is now promoted to Brigadier General.
Princess Tsehay died August 12, 1934 without having any children.
On May 26 1934 Empress Menen visited the Ethiopian Women Association. Again she visited Tensae Birhan School which was established for the poor children and donated money to strengthen the school. On November 11, 1935 Empress Menen after visited Ethiopian Women Association and advised how the association could strengthen itself.
On July 1, 1935 she inaugurated the handicraft school which was established to work different products. On 1935 she gave her estate for the orphans whose fathers and mothers were killed by the enemy. She opened Siwaswe Birhan School. In this school even the blind are learning how to write and read.
On October 5, 1936 Empress Menen visited Empress Menen School and advised girls about studying hard.
On November 14, 1936 her beloved children, Princess Tenagenework Haile Sellassie and the young Prince Sahle Sellassie came back from England. On this occasion there was invitation in the palace.
On January 7, 1937 she inaugurated the new Trinity Church. On this same day there was a ceremony for the patriots and a memorial for the recently deceased Princess Tsehay.
On February 15, 1937 she visited Empress Menen handicraft school.
On February 3, 1938 Prince Mekonnen the Duke of Harar and Princess Sara Gizaw got married legally with a crown ceremony.
Empress Menen school progressed and became fruitful. Due to the increase in a large number of students. Empress Menen put the base stone to be built for a new building for 300 girls.
Empress Menen visited Harar province and surrounding areas. She also observed different offices in Dire- Dawa.
On September 24, 1934 she visited Gondar for the first time with His Majesty King of Kings. They traveled by an extraordinary airplane. They stayed up to October 7, 1938 visiting Lake Tana. Empress Menen received and talked to ladies of Gondar and donated her money to encourage women.
On July 10, 1939 she sent her crown to Bethlehem church near which Jesus Christ was born.
On 1939 Empress Menen allowed the construction of Gete Semani St. Mary Church at Sebeta which is 23 kilometers from Addis Ababa. This modern building was started through her private funds.
On March 25, 1940 the St. Mary church at Sebeta was completed and inaugurated by her. Empress Menen gave her estate and residence area for priests and deacons of St. Mary church.
On May 21, 1940 she visited Empress Menen's school to initiate students in their academic and handicraft products.
On May 29, 1940 she visited Ambo Twon and the surrounding area. On June 22, 1940 Empress Menen went to Harar for visit. She stayed for 12 days and came back on July 5th to Addis Ababa.
On September 1, 1941 His Majesty King of Kings gave instruction to the people that Ethiopians should wear cultural dress so that the coming generation may follow this as an example. Empress Menen took the initiative to wear cultural dress for the first time in new year.
In 1941, on the Empress Zewditu Avenue, Empress Menen gave her estate for the school which is named for her beloved daughter Princess Zenebework.
On January 24, 1941 Empress Menen traveled by an extraordinary plane to Gondar for the second time. She visited ancient historical places and she donated garments and money for many churches in Gondar.
On December 15, 1941 Empress Menen visited the new St. Trinity Spiritual School as she is a model for spiritual deeds.
In 1942 the 14 sacred books of the church were printed by Empress Menen. The number of books were 3800 in number and were sold for the Sewaswe Berhan St. Paul School as a donation. The amount of the money was 19000 birr from the sales of the books.
Moreover, she gave part of her mother’s estate and many houses for the service of the school. On April 22, 1942 Empress Menen was invited to the inauguration ceremony for the Haile Sellassie I Bridge. This bridge was built across Abay River.
On July 8, 1942 Empress Menen went to Yerergota district found in the Harar province. She stayed there until July 27th and returned back to Addis Ababa. During her stay she donated and talked to the people of the district.
Empress Menen renewed the Gishen church which is found in the Ambasel Region in Wollo province with her own funds. In addition to this, she oversaw the construction of a good road over a path which was previously difficult for the elderly believers to navigate get access to the church.
Empress Menen reconstructed Boru Trinity church which was devastated by Italian aggressors in Wollo province. She donated Birr 56,500 from her private account and made the church in modern building in 1943.
On January 8, 1943 she went to Debrezeit to visit the Haile Sellassie Air Force School. She observed the war tactic demonstration at Harameda and evaluated the progress of the cadets of air force.
On February 20, 1943 she was invited guest in the inaugural ceremony of Addis Ababa University College when it was opened for the first time.
On March 10, 1943 she inaugurated Gebremariam School, especially the kindergarten building which is named by princes Azeb Asfa-Wosen.
On June 7, 1943 she visited Empress Menen school and observed the handicrafts output. Empress Menen encouraged them and gave her motherly advice to the students.
On May 1, 1944, Empress Menen visited the school found in Nazareth.
On June 17, 1944 again she visited different schools found in Nazareth.
On June 26 1944 she visited different schools found in Nazareth.
On June 26, 1944 she visited patients in Princess Tsahay Memorial Hospital.
On September 24, 1945 she went to Asmara to visit Eritrea after it was converged with the other part of the country. On her visit the people of Asmara received her warmly. Empress Menen talked to the ladies of Eritrea and donated and gave gifts. She stayed up to October 8th in Asmara and then she went to Dessie. She returned back to Addis Ababa on October 18th.
On January 14, 1945 she went to Eritrea for the second time and solved different problems.
On April 16, 1945 she visited Empress Menen School because she was interested in expanding the handicraft products. She encouraged the students to keep up the good work.
On May 1, 1945 she put down the base stone of the construction of a new church around Fitawrari Habte Giorgis’ area. The name of the church was St. Raguel Building which was started by Empress Menen.
On July 19, 1945 she went to Harar and Dirdawa to visit different official departments. Empress Menen resolved problems which came up from the people.
Empress Menen went to Eritrea for the third time. She received the ladies of Eritrea in her palace. She assisted them with finances and came back to Addis Ababa on February 3, 1945.
On March 16, 1946 she visited the department of handicraft which was established in the Empress Menen School.
His Majesty King of Kings went to America on July 16, 1946. As he was invited by President Eisenhower, Empress Menen celebrated His Majesty's birthday in Genete Leul Palace.
On August 8, 1946 Empress Menen prayed continuously during the first fasting of Filseta in Addis Ababa and the second fasting in Harar. She donated finance to priests and stayed up to Pagumen 4.On October 23, 1947 As His Majesty Haile Sellassie went to Europe for a friendly visit, she celebrated his coronation day nicely.
On February 23, 1947 she awarded certificates to successful graduate nurses in Empress Zewditu Hospital. His Imperial Majesty and Empress Menen awarded certificates for young girls who passed the examination successfully.
On February. 24, 1947 she visited the Empress Menen school.
On March 23, 1947 Empress Menen visited the Nazareth region and its surrounding area.
On June 3, 1947 Empress Menen went to Ambo and visited different schools and clinics which are found around Hagere Hiwot.
On July 7, 1947 Empress Menen awarded certificates for successful nurses. On October 23, 1948 she went to Menagesha St. George Church to celebrate the 25th coronation ceremony. Empress Menen thanked the Almighty God them.
On December 15, 1948 she went to Massawa by an extraordinary airplane to visit Eritrea for fourth time. Then she visited some places found between Asmara and Massawa. Empress Menen presented Christmas gifts to the young ladies of Asmara. She came back to Addis on January 8, 1948.
On January 5, 1948 she visited the nurse school in Asmara which is named after her own name. In this nursing school many Eritrean young ladies are continuing their education and give services in their profession.
Empress Menen as she is generous bought the land of the former German mission, investing hundreds of thousands of Birr. This institution is found at the East of Debre Selam Medhane Alem Church. Empress Menen gathered the blind who are orphans around Addis Ababa and hired Ethiopian and foreigner teachers. She also assigned guardians for the orphaned blind children to facilitate their learning teaching process. Moreover, in this school she constructed an additional new building paying 200,000 Birr for 100 boarding students. The building was opened on December 30, 1949.
On April 18, 1949 she celebrated the 25th anniversary of the Empress Menen school. During this celebration, there were a lot of people. The school had shown progress and gave an opportunity for many girls to be educated. On this occasion she extended her message through Teferra Work to the gathered people:
“His Imperial Majesty King of Kings believed that there is nothing better for the development of a country's progress and advancement than education. In this regard on his willingness he built many schools for boys. But if girls are left behind without having regular education, they will be at a disadvantage. Therefore, I have opened this school for the teaching of girls 25 years old and younger, since I believe girls should learn as boys.
This school was discontinued by the invasion of the enemy against Ethiopia. By the grace of God the school resumed its function after the victory. Many girls have received a chance to be promoted at the higher level of education after graduating from this school. Many of them are working in the government offices and in private organizations.
If my country's girls get the opportunity to receive the standard education I hope they can contribute a lot which is expected from them as their brothers.
Twenty-five years ago, there were not more than 50 students, when the school was opened. Today there are about 1300 students. This number is increasing because girls are aware of the advantage of education. I am very happy to see to this progress.
I thank the Almighty God for which I celebrate the 25th year of the Empress Menen School. I thank the director of this school and the lady teachers who have shared the problems of the school, as well as it’s progress.”
On May 3, 1949 Empress Menen went to Sidamo by extraordinary plane and reached in Awasa for a visit.
On May 4, 1949 her beloved son prince Mekonnen the Duke of Harar died in accident and she came back to Addis Ababa by plane. On May 5, 1949 at the funeral ceremony she felt deep sorrow. Empress Menen mourned up to Pagumen 4, 1949 for the death of her beloved son.
I have tried to write about your generosity and kindness. This book may help the future writers as a book which gives basic information. This book may not be a complete work about the Empress, but I have tried to mention only some part of it. I restricted my pen here since the future writers may be able to complete the work in this regard.
Even though, my capability is limited to 1916 to April 28 and then from 1933 up to now (1950), I have had the opportunity to see with my own eyes her kindness and human deeds. Therefore, I am responsible for transferring this good work to the coming generation and I am very fortunate to be able to write this chronicle.
Empress Menen requested His Imperial Majesty King of Kings excuse those who committed mistakes and asked for commendation for those who have done good deeds for their country by being promoted and assigned to the government offices.
As she is a God fearing Empress, she always prays to God. Every Friday she goes to Mehanealem Church of St. Mark Church for special praying since Friday is a day which Jesus Christ is crucified for the sin of all mankind.
Empress Menen except for her childhood always gave her life for good deeds. She goes to St. Mark church Everyday where she stays up to 9 A.M. praying to God and receiving monks and nuns who come from different churches and monasteries. Empress Menen also gives donation her own money for the reconstruction of churches. When she returns to the palace from church, receives the women who lost their husbands in the war front and fulfills whatever they demand.
The Author Yared Gebre Michael presented the book titled "YAFICATSEHAY' (The Sun of Africa) to the Emperor and Empress on the occasion of the 64th birthday of His Imperial Majesty King of Kings Haile Sellassie. On this occasion he presented also a special newspaper which was prepared by the office.
Empress Menen builds many churches and reconstructed the likes of Gishen Mary, Tenta Michael Boru Trinity, Endelba St. George church etc. Empress Menen is not praying for herself only but also for the pillar of Ethiopia His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie, for her country Ethiopia, and for the development of the loyal of Ethiopia. Empress has never alienated herself from the church. Wudasie Amlac, Seife Selassie Arganon, St Mary praying in Golgotha - she always reads those books. Empress Menen likes to give attention to the interpretation of the books of the church. This shows how she is farsighted and is very intelligent.
Empress Menen allowed the orphans to learn who live in the area out of the capital city. Empress Menen understands the problems of the poor and always visits patients in hospitals. Empress Menen believes man is mortal so that she always shares the problems of the people and tries to solve them. Ethiopian people rely on her.
During the five years of Italian invasion many churches were devastated. Empress Menen has been in a deep sorrow because her beloved children were killed. All Ethiopian people shared her grief and sympathized with her. As she is strong spiritually, Almighty God gave her strength. She passed through each problem patiently. Even though she lost her children she never neglect the country's problem this is well known by Ethiopian people. Therefore, Ethiopian people love Empress Menen from the bottom of their heart and share the happiness and sadness with her.
On the occasion of her 67th birth day ceremony all Ethiopian people wish the best for Empress. The whole people express the deepest feelings for her and say what a happy birthday it is that His Imperial Majesty King of Kings Haile Sellassie is also with you during the ceremony of your birthday.
Ethiopian people wish the best for you in the coming year. May it be celebrated with your princes and Princesses’ children.
(This Book was published during the 28th year of the Reign of His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie I King of Kings of Ethiopia. First published in Artistic printing Press.)
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Ori or Aram, son of Shem. 60 2222-2162
2. Gariak I. Mash, son of 66 2162-2096
3. Gannkam 83 2096-2013
4. Borsa (queen) 67 2013-1946
5. Dagmawi Gariak II 60 1946-1886
6. Qadamawi Djan I 80 1886-1806
7. Dagmawi Djan II 60 1806-1746
8. Senefrou=Job 20 1746-1726
9. Zeenabzamin 58 1726-1668
10. Sahlan 60 1668-1608
11. Elaryan 80 1608-1528
12. Nimroud 60 1528-1468
13. Eylouka (queen) 45 1468-1423
14. Saloug 30 1423-1393
15. Kharid 72 1393-1321
16. Hogeb 100 1321-1221
17. Makaws 70 1221-1151
18. Assa 30 1151-1121
19. Affar 50 1121-1071
20. Milanos 62 1071-1009
21. Soliman Tehagui 73 1009- 936
THE LINE OF HAM, CUSH AND SABTAH
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Kam = Ham. Date of 78 2255-2177
2. Kout = Cush. Son of 50 2177-2127 Ham.
3. Habassi 40 2127-2087
4. Sebtah 30 2087-2057
5. Elektron 30 2057-2027
6. Neber 30 2027-1997
7. Qadamawi Amen I 21 1997-1976
8. Nehasset Nais (queen) 30 1976-1946
9. Horkam 29 1946-1917
10. Dagmawi Saba II 30 1917-1887
11. Sofard 30 1887-1857
12. Askndou 25 1857-1832
13. Hohey 35 1832-1797
14. Adglag 20 1797-1777
15. Adgala 30 1777-1747
16. Lakniduga 25 1747-1722
17. Manturay 35 1722-1687
18. Rakhu 30 1687-1657
19. Qadamawi Sabe I 30 1657-1627
20. Azagan 30 1627-1597
21. Sousel Atozanis 20 1597-1577
22. Dagmawi Amen II 15 1577-1562
23. Ramenpahte 20 1562-1542
24. Wanuna 3 days 1542
25. Piori II, father of the 15 1542-1527
AGDAZYAN DYNASTY OF THE POSTERITY OF THE KINGDOM OF JOCTAN
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Qadamawi Akbunas Saba I. Saba 55 1978-1923
2. Nakehte Kalnis. Kalnis 40 1923-1883
3. Kasiyope (queen) 19 1883-1864
4. Qadamawi Sabe I 15 1864-1849
5. Qadamawi Etiyopus I 56 1849-1793
6. Lakndun Nowarari 30 1793-1763
7. Tutimheb 20 1763-I743
8. Qadamawi Herhator I 20 1743-1723
9. Dagmawi Etiyopus II 30 1723-1693
10. Qadamawi Senuka I 17 1693-1676
11. Qadamawi Bonu I 8 1676-1668
12. Mumazes (queen) 4 1668-1664
13. Aruas, daughter of 7 months 1664 Mumazes.
14. Qadamawi Amen Asro I 30 1664-1634
15. Dagmawi Ori (or Aram) II 30 1634-1604
16. Qadamawi Piori I 15 1604-1589
17. Qadamawi Amen Emhat I 40 1589-1549
18. Tsawi 15 1549-1534
19. Aktissanis 10 1534-1524
20. Mandes 17 1524-1507
21. Protawos 33 1507-1474
22. Amoy 21 1474-1453
23. Konsi Hendawi 5 1453-1448
24. Dagmawi Bonu II 2 1448-1446
25. Salsawi Sebi III (Kefe) 15 1446-1431
26. Djagons 20 1431-1411
27. Dagmawi Dagmawi Senuka II 10 1411-1401
28. Qadamawi Angabo I (Zaka Laarwe) 50 1401-1351
29. Miamur 2 days 1351
30. Helena (queen) 11 1351-1340
31. Qadamawi Zagdur I 40 1340-1300
32. Dagmawi Her Hator II 30 1300-1270
33. Her Hator (Za Sagado) III 1 1270-1269
34. Akate (Za Sagado) IV 20 1269-1249
35. Titon Satiyo 10 1249-1239
36. Qadamawi Hermantu I 5 months 1239
37. Dagmawi Amen Emhat II 5 1239-1234
38. Qadamawi Konsab I 5 1234-1229
39. Dagmawi Sannib II 5 1229-1224
40. Sanuka III 5 1224-1219
41. Dagmawi Angabo II 40 1219-1179
42. Amen Astate 30 1179-1149
43. Herhor 16 1149-1133
44. Qadamawi Wiyankihi I 9 1133-1124
45. Qadamawi Pinotsem I 17 1124-1107
46. Dagmawi Pinotsem II 41 1107-1066
47. Massaherta 16 1066-1050
48. Ramenkoperm 14 1050-1036
49. Salsawi Pinotsem III 7 1036-1029
50. Sabi IV 10 1029-1019
51. Tawasaya Dews 13 1019-1006
52. Makeda 31 1006- 975
DYNASTY OF MENELIK I
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Qadamawi Menelik I 25 975-950
2. Hanyon 1 950-949
3. Qadamawi Zera I (Tomai). This 26 949-923
4. Amen Hotep Zagdur 31 923-892
5. Aksumay Ramissu 20 892-872
6. Dagmawi Awseyo Sera II 38 872-834
7. Dagmawi Tawasya II 21 834-813
8. Dagmawi Abralyus Wiyankihi II 32 813-781
9. Aksumay Warada Tsahay 23 781-758
10. Kashta Hanyon 13 758-745
11. Dagmawi Sabaka II 12 745-733
12. Nicauta Kandake (queen) 10 733-723
13. Tsawi Terhak Warada 49 723-674 Nsgash
14. Erda Amen Awseya, or 6 674-668
15. Gasiyo Eskikatir -- 668
16. Nuatmeawn (Tanautamun) 4 668-664
17. Salsawi Tomadyon Piyankihi III 12 664-652
18. Amen Asero 16 652-636
19. Piyankihi IV, or Awtet 34 636-602
20. Zaware Nebret Aspurta 41 602-561
21. Dagmawi Saifay Harsiataw II 12 561-549
22. Ramhay Nastossanan 4 549-535
23. Handu Wuha Abra 11 535-524
24. Safelya Sabakon 31 524-493
25. Agalbus Sepekos 22 493-471
26. Psmenit Waradanegash 21 471-450
27. Awseya Tarakos 12 450-438
28. Kanaz Psmis, son of 13 438-425 Awseya Tarakos
29. Apras 10 425-415
30. Kashta Walda Ahuhu 20 415-395
31. Elalion Taake 10 395-385
32. Salsawi Atserk Amen III 10 385-375
33. Atserk Amen IV 10 375-365
34. Hadina (queen) 10 365-355
35. Atserk Amen V 10 355-345
36. Atserk Amen VI 10 345-335
37. Nikawla Kandake (queen) 10 335-325
38. Bassyo 7 325-318
39. Salsawi Akawsis Kandake III 10 318-308 (queen)
40. Dagmawi Arkamen II 10 308-298
41. Awtet Arawura 10 298-288
42. Dagmawi Kolas II (Kaletro) 10 288-278
43. Zawre Nebrat 16 278-262
44. Stiyo 14 262-248
45. Safay 13 248-235
46. Nikosis Kandake IV (queen) 10 235-225
47. Ramhay Arkamen IV 10 225-215
48. Feliya Hernekhit 15 215-200
49. Hende Awkerara 20 200-180
50. Agabu Baseheran 10 180-170
51. Sulay Kawswmenun 20 170-150
52. Messelme Kerarmer 8 150-142
53. Nagey Bsente 10 142-132
54. Etbenukewer 10 132-122
55. Safeliya Abramen 20 122-102
56. Sanay 10 102- 92
57. Awsena (queen) 11 92- 81
58. Dagmawi Dawit II 10 81- 71
59. Aglbul 8 71- 63
60. Bawawl 10 63- 53
61. Barawas 10 53- 43
62. Dinedad 10 43- 33
63. Amoy Mahasse 5 33- 28
64. Nicotnis Kandake V 10 28- 18
65. Nalke 5 18- 13
66. Luzay 12 13- 1
67. Bazen 17 B.C. 1- 17 A.D.
THOSE WHO REIGNED AFTER THE BIRTH OF CHRIST
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Sartu Tsenfa Assegd 21 17- 38
2. Akaptah Tsenfa Ared 8 38- 46
3. Horemtaku 2 46- 48
4. Garsemot Kandake VI. Jen 10 48- 58
5. Hatoza Bahr Asaged 28 58- 86
6. Mesenh Germasir 7 86- 93
7. Metwa Germa Asfar 9 93-102
8. Dagmawi Adgale II 10 102-112
9. Agba 1 112-113
10. Serada 16 113-129
11. Malis Alameda 4 129-133
12. Hakabe Nasohi Tsiyon 6 133-139
13. Hakli Sergway 12 139-151
14. Dedme Zaray 10 151-161
15. Awtet 2 161-163
16. Alaly Bagamay 7 163-170
17. Awadu Jan Asagad 30 170-200
18. Zagun Tsion Hegez 5 200-205
19. Rema Tsion Geza 3 205-208
20. Azegan Malbagad 7 208-215
21. Gafale Seb Asagad 1 215-216
22. Tsegay Beze Wark 4 216-220
23. Gaza Agdur 9 220-229
24. Agduba Asgwegwe 8 229-237
25. Dawiza 1 237-238
26. Wakana (queen) 2 days 238
27. Hadawz 4 months 238
28. Ailassan Sagal 3 238-241
29. Asfehi Asfeha 14 241-255
30. Atsgaba Seifa Arad 6 255-261
31. Ayba 17 261-278
32. Tsaham Laknduga 9 278-287
33. Tsegab 10 287-297
34. Tazer 10 297-307
35. Ahywa Sofya (queen) 7 307-314
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE CHRIST SOVEREIGNS
1. Ahywa. Her regnal name was Sofya, and she was the mother of Abreha Atsbeha.
2. Abreha Atsbeha (with mother) 26 314-340
3. Atsbeha, alone. 12 340-352
4. Asfeh Dalz 7 352-359
5. Sahle 14 359-373
6. Arfed Gebra Maskal 4 373-377
7. Qadamawi Adhana I (queen) 5 377-382
8. Riti 1 382-383
9. Dagmawi Asfeh II 1 383-384
10. Dagmawi Atsbeha II 5 384-389
11. Amey 15 389-404
12. Dagmawi Abreha II 7 months 404
13. Ilassahl 2 months 404
14. Qadamawi Elagabaz I 2 404-406
15. Suhal 4 406-410
16. Salsawi Abreha III 10 410-420
17. Dagmawi Adhana II (queen) 6 420-426
18. Yoab 10 426-436
19. Qadamawi Tsaham I 2 436-438
20. Dagmawi Amey II 1 438-439
21. Sahle Ahzob 2 439-441
22. Tsebah Mahana Kristos 3 441-444
23. Dagmawi Tsaham II 2 444-446
24. Dagmawi Elagabaz II 6 446-452
25. Agabi 1 452-453
26. Lewi 2 453-455
27. Ameda III 3 455-458
28. Armah Dawit 14 458-472
29. Amsi 5 472-477
30. Salayba 9 477-486
31. Alameda 8 486-494
32. Pazena Ezana 7 494-501
DYNASTY OF ASHE (EMPEROR) KALEB UNTIL GEDAJAN
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Kaleb 30 501-531
2. Za Israel 1 month 531
3. Gabra Maskal 14 531-545
4. Kostantinos 28 545-573
5. Wasan Sagad 15 573-588
6. Fere Sanay 23 588-611
7. Advenz 20 611-631
8. Akala Wedem 8 631-639
9. Germa Asafar 15 639-654
10. Zergaz 10 654-664
11. Dagena Mikael 26 664-690
12. Bahr Ekla 19 690-709
13. Gum 24 709-733
14. Asguagum 5 733-738
15. Latem 16 738-754
16. Talatam 21 754-775
17. Gadagosh 13 775-788
18. Aizar Eskakatir 1/2 day 788
19. Dedem 5 788-793
20, Wededem 10 793-803
21. Wudme Asfare 30 803-833
22. Armah 5 833-838
23. Degennajan 19 838-857
24. Gedajan 1 857-858
25. Gudit 40 858-898
26. Anbase Wedem 20 898-918
27. Del Naad 10 918-928
SOVEREIGNS ISSUED FROM ZAGWE
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Mara Takla Haymanot 13 928- 941
2. Tatawdem 40 941- 981
3. Jan Seyum 40 981-1021
4. Germa Seyum 40 1021-1061
5. Yermrhana Kristos 40 1061-1101
6. Kedus Arbe (Samt) 40 1101-1141
7. Lalibala 40 1141-1181
8. Nacuto Laab 40 1181-1221
9. Yatbarak 17 1221-1238
10. Mayari 15 1238-1253
11. Harbay 8 1253-1261
A JEW (SOLOMONIC) DYNASTY, WHICH WAS NOT RAISED TO THE THRONE, DURING THE PERIOD OF THE PRECEDING DYNASTY
1. Mahbara Wedem
2. Agbea Tsyon
3. Tsinfa Arad
4. Nagash Zare
7. Bahr Asagad
8. Edem Asagad
SOVEREIGNS FROM EMPEROR YEKUNO AMLAK, DESCENDED FROM THE ANCIENT REIGNING DYNASTIES
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Yekuno Amlak 15 1261-1276
2. Yasbeo Tseyon 9 1276-1285
3. Tsenfa Arad 1 1285-1286
4. Hesba Asagad 1 1286-1287
5. Kedme Asagad 1 1287-1288
6. Jan Asagad 1 1288-1289
7. Sabea Asagad 1 1289-1290
8. Wedma Ared 15 1290-1305
9. Amda Tseyon 30 1305-1335
10. Saifa Ared 28 1335-1363
11. Wedma Asfare 10 1363-1373
12. Dawit 30 1373-1403
13. Tewodoros 4 1403-1407
14. Yeshak 15 1407-1422
15. Andreyas 6 months 1422
16. Hesba Nan 4 1422-1426
17. Bedl Nan & Andreyas 1 1426-1427
18. Amde Tseyon 7 1427-1434
19. Zara Yakob 34 1434-1468
20. Boeda Maryam 10 1468-1478
21. Iskender 16 1478-1494
22. Amda Tseyon 1 1494-1495
23. Naod 13 1495-1508
ELEVATION TO THE THRONE OF ASHE (EMPEROR) LEBNA DENGEL, AND THE INVASION OF ETHIOPIA BY GRAN
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Lebna Dengel 32 1508-1540
2. Galawdewos 19 1540-1559
3. Minas 4 1559-1563
Fifteen years after Ashe (Emperor) Lebna Dengel came to the throne Gran devastated Ethiopia for fifteen years.
THE HOUSE OF GONDAR
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Sartsa Dengel 34 1563-1597
2. Yakob 9 1597-1606
3. Za Dengel 1 1606-1607
4. Susneyos 28 1607-1635
5. Fasil 35 1635-1670
6. Degu-Yohannes 15 1670-1685
7. Adyam Sagad Iyasu 25 1685-1710
8. Takla Haymanot 2 1710-1712
9. Tewoflus 3 1712-1715
10. Yostos 4 1715-1719
11. Dawit 5 1719-1724
12. Bakaffa 9 1724-1733
13. Birhan Sagad Iyasu 24 1733-1757
14. Iyoas 15 1757-1772
15. Yohannes 5 mos. & 5 dys. 1772
16. Takla Haymanot 8 1772-1780
17. Solomon 2 1780-1782
18. Takla Giyorgis 5 1782-1787
SOVEREIGNS OF ABYSSINIA SUBSEQUENT TO THE FOREGOING LIST
RULER REIGN DATES
1. Yasus 1 1787-1788
2. Takla Haymanot 1 1788-1789
3. Iskias 6 1789-1795
4. Baeda Maryam 2 1795-1797
5. Junus -- 1797
6. Adimo 2 1797-1799
7. Egwala Sion 19 1799-1818
8. Joas 3 1818-1821
9 Gigar 5 1821-1826
10. Salsawi Baeda Maryam III -- 1826
11. Gigar (again) 4 1826-1830
12. Iyasu IV 2 1830-1832
13. Gabra Kristos -- 1832
14. Sahala Dengel 8 1832-1840
15. Salsawi Yohannes III 1 1840-1841
16. Sahala Dengel (again) 14 1841-1855
At this time the empire was re-established by Theodore.
17. Tewodoros 13 1855-1868
18. Yohannes IV 21 1868-1889
19. Dagmawi Menelik II 24 1889-1913
20. Lij Yasu 3 1913-1916
21. Zauditu, empress, and 14 1916-1930 Ras Tafari Makonnen, regent and heir.
22. Qadamawi Haile Selassie I, 1930-